The Problem: Accelerated Degradation of Li-Ion Batteries

Since PJM modified their fast frequency response signal (i.e. the RegD signal) to be “conditionally energy neutral” over a 30-minute period instead of the previous 15-minutes, battery systems have suffered steep degradation rates and significant system de-ratings due to:
  • Milage ratio increasing from 2.7 to 6
  • Average amplitude being approximately doubled
  • Energy throughput increasing from 2.5 to 6 cycles per day

Figure 1: Energy throughput (in cycles/day) for July 2016-June 2017

Degradation Through Cycling, DoD and SoC

The surge in energy throughput, along with the increased depth of discharge (DoD) and the deviating average state of charge (SoC), accelerated degradation rates.
  • The maximum cumulative energy throughput degrades rapidly as DoD increases (Fig. 2).
  • Annual Annual degradation nearly doubles when the average state of charge is increased beyond ~50%. (Fig. 3).

Figure 2: Energy Throughput vs. Depth of Discharge

Figure 3: Annual Degradation Rate vs. Average State of Charge

The Solution: Powerfull Solution’s ESS Optimizer

Powerfull Solutions has developed a powerful AI-based algorithm that utilizes deep learning to optimize energy storage system performance while participating in PJM’s frequency regulation bids.

  • A Plug & Play product that improves project profitability from day 1
  • Can improve performance of any new or existing battery project
  • Up to 3 times system longevity
  • ~40% savings in system related costs
  • Supports multiple types of batteries
  • Life-time warranty, full technical support and prioritized pricing on future versions by Powerfull Solutions
  • Risk-free on-site trial – install the Optimizer for 30 days at no cost and see the benefits

performance comparison on different system sizes

The comparisons show the system performance when operated using the Powerfull Solutions Optimizer, compared to using another typical algorithm. The comparison is done on three different system sizes, representing commonly used configurations in the market: 1MW/1MWh, 1.5MW/1MWh and 2MW/1MWh. The results show several advantages of the Powerfull Solutions Opitmizer in decreasing the impact of key battery degradation factors:

  • Average DoD is significantly lower
  • SoC max. value is lower, and min. value is higher
  • The SoC standard deviation is much lower, such that the SOC evolves significantly larger part of the time around the average value.
  • Energy throughput is lower
  • Performance score remains high

Bottom line: As can be seen, in all cases the Powerfull Solutions Optimizer upgrades the system performance, which directly increases the system value.

Maximizing Project Value from Day One

Powerfull Solutions’ Optimizer increases a project’s value regardless of when during the project’s lifetime it is installed.

  • Cash flows can be increased immediately by increasing the offering capacity or the P-score
  • Long-term value can be increased by extending the life of the project

Increase in Annual Cash Flow and NPV by Year

Figure 4: Increase in P-Score from 89.5 to 93.7 on 1.5MW/1MWh project

Figure 5: Increase offer capacity from 1.5MW to 2MW on 1MWh project

Figure 6: Extend life from 5 to 7 years on 1.5MW/1MWh project

The ESS Optimizer – Minimal Impact Installation implemented via a locally installed controller on site, or alternatively via a cloud-based interface

Installation Options for Existing PJM Frequency Regulation Projects:

  • Option 1: Insert a controller in the existing communication path to intercept the RegD command, modify the RegD command based on battery state and send along the modified command. Minimal impact requiring modification of only one device.
  • Option 2: Install an interface controller to provide modified RegD command after receiving the RegD signal and battery state information from the battery. This option can be implemented either at the existing energy storage site controller or, alternatively, further upstream of the energy storage site controller.

Note that the ESS Optimizer can be implemented via a locally installed embedded controller or alternatively via a cloud-based interface.

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